The Villa Farnese, also known as Villa Caprarola, is a mansion in the town of Caprarola in the province of Viterbo. This villa should not be confused with the Palazzo Farnese and the Villa Farnesina, both in Rome.
The Villa Farnese is situated directly above the town of Caprarola and dominates its surroundings. It is a massive Renaissance and Mannerist construction, opening to the Monte Cimini, a range of densely wooded volcanic hills. It is built on a five-sided plan in reddish gold stone; buttresses support the upper floors. The Palazzo had already been started on a pentagonal plan by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, an expert military engineer. Work on it was interrupted around the mid-16th century; however, the walls of the fortress had already been erected at that time. After Sangallo’s death, Vignola began to work at Caprarola around the mid sixteenth century. He decided to keep the pentagonal shape intact, and designed an elegant palazzo with hundreds of rooms and a beautiful Italian garden.
As a centerpiece of the vast Farnese holdings, Caprarola has always been an expression of Farnese power, rather than a villa in the more usual agricultural or pleasure senses.
In 1504, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, the future Pope Paul III, acquired the estate at Caprarola. He had designs made for a fortified castle or rocca by the architects Antonio da Sangallo the Younger and Baldassare Peruzzi. Surviving plan drawings by Peruzzi show a pentagonal arrangement with each face of the pentagon canted inwards towards its center, to permit raking fire upon a would-be scaling force, both from the center and from the projecting bastions that advance from each corner angle of the fortress. Peruzzi's plan also shows a central pentagonal courtyard and it is likely that the later development of the circular central court was also determined by the necessities of the pentagonal plan. The pentagonal fortress foundations, constructed probably between 1515 and 1530, became the base upon which the present villa sits; so the overall form of the villa was predetermined by the rocca foundations.
Subsequently, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, a grandson of Pope Paul III, and a man who was known for promoting his family's interests, planned to turn this partly constructed fortified edifice into a villa or country house. In 1556, he commissioned Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola as his architect, building work commenced in 1559 and Vignola continued to work on the villa at Caprarola until his death in 1573. Farnese was a courteous man of letters; however, the Farnese family as a whole became unpopular with the following pope, Julius III and accordingly, Alessandro Farnese decided it would be politic to retire from the Vatican for a period. He therefore selected Caprarola on the family holding of Ronciglione, being both near and yet far enough from Rome as the ideal place to build a country house.
The villa is one of the finest examples of Renaissance architecture. Ornament is used sparingly to achieve proportion and harmony. Thus while the villa dominates the surroundings, its severe design also complements the site. This particular style, known today as Mannerism, was a reaction to the ornate earlier High Renaissance designs of twenty years earlier.
Vignola, the architect chosen for this difficult and inhospitable site, had recently proved his mettle in designing Villa Giulia on the outskirts of Rome for the preceding pope, Julius III. Vignola in his youth had been heavily influenced by Michelangelo. For the villa at Caprarola, his plans as built were for a pentagon constructed around a circular colonnaded courtyard. In the galleried court, paired Ionic columns flank niches containing busts of the Roman Emperors, above a rusticated arcade, a reworking of Bramante's scheme for the "House of Raphael", in Via Giulia, Rome. A further Bramantesque detail is the entablature that breaks forward over the columns, linking them above, while they stand on separate bases. The gallery and upper floors were reached by five spiral staircases around the courtyard: the most important of these is the Scala Regia ("Royal Stairs") rising through the principal floors.
Approach and entrance
The approach to the Villa Farnese is from the town's main street, which is centred on the villa, to a piazza from which stairs ascend to a series of terraces beginning with the subterranean basement excavated from the tuff, surrounded by steep curving steps leading to the terrace above. This basement floor in the foundations, which functioned as a carriage entrance in inclement weather, features a massive central column with a series of buttresses and retaining walls; on the exterior, large heavily grilled doors in the rusticated walls appear to lead into the guardrooms of a fortress, while above them a curved balustraded external double stairway leads to the terrace above. This in turn has a formal double staircase to the principal entrance on the Piano dei Prelati floor which is accessed from the broad terrace. This bastion-like floor, which appears in the elevation as a second ground floor, is rusticated, the main door a severe arch flanked by three windows each side. The facade at this level is terminated by massive solid corner projections.
Above this is the double-height piano nobile, where five huge arched windows incongruously dominate the facade over the front door; above this sit a further two floors housing gentlefolk with servants above them, the numerous windows divided on the exterior by rusticated pilasters in dressed stone.
Landscape with Palazzo Farnese at Caprarola, fresco in the casino at Villa Lante, Bagnaia
One of four large frescoes in the casino at Villa Lante which depicts contemporary Italian villas. This shows the competition between villa owners who greatly increased the scope and complexity of villa and landscape architecture in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
The villa's interiors are arranged over five floors, each floor designed for a different function. The main rooms are located on the first floor or piano nobile, where a large central loggia (now glazed in) looks down over the town, its main street and the surrounding countryside. This hall is known as the Room of Hercules on account of its fresco decorations, and was used as a summer dining hall. It has a grotto-like fountain with sculpture at one end. To either side of the loggia are two circular rooms: one is the chapel, the other accommodates the principal staircase or Scala Regia, a graceful spiral of steps supported by pairs of Ionic columns rising up through three floors and frescoed by Antonio Tempesta.
The two grand apartments at first floor level are symmetrically-matched in plan and complete the remaining enclosure of the courtyard. Each has a series of five rooms with state rooms, which begin with the largest reception hall nearest the entrance and proceed, with increasing intimacy and decreased size, to a bedroom, wardrobe and studiolo at the northern end; an ordered suite that would become standardized in the 17th century as the Baroque state apartment. The different orientations of these two apartments allows for a seasonal differentiation; the east, or summer apartment is associated with the active life, the west, or winter range with the contemplative life. The scrupulous symmetrical balance of the two apartments is carried through by their matching parterre gardens, each reached by a bridge across the moat and cut into the hillslope.
The suites are famous for their Mannerist frescoes. The iconograhic program of frescoes expressing the glory of the Farnese were worked out by the humanists in Farnese's court, notably his secretary, Annibale Caro; The fresco cycles portray the exploits of Alexander the Great, and of course of the Farnese themselves: in the Sala dei Fasti Farnesiani (the Room of Farnese Deeds), decorated by the brothers Taddeo and Federico Zuccari, the Farnese are depicted at all their most glorious moments, from floor to coffered ceiling. Other artists employed in fresco decoration include Giacomo Zanguidi (il Bertoia), Raffaellino da Reggio, Antonio Tempesta, Giacomo del Duca, and Giovanni De Vecchi.
Among the frescoed subjects of the contemplative winter suite is the famous "Room of the World Map" or Sala del Mappamondo, displaying the whole known world as it was in 1574 when the frescoes were completed. Giovanni Antonio da Varese painted maps of the four continents, Palestine and Italy and a Mappamondo, a world map. Above, the frescoed vault depicts the celestial spheres and the constellations of the zodiac.
Sala del Mappamondo
Sala del mappamondo fresco, Palazzo Farnese Caprarola
The frescoed vault depicts the celestial spheres and the constellations of the zodiac
The Stanza dei Lanifici (Room of Woolmaking) is one of the more than thirty frescoed rooms decorated with allegorical, mythological, historical and topographical scenes by several painters (Taddeo and Federico Zuccaro, Giacomo Vignola, Jacopo Bertoia, Giovanni de' Vecchi, Raffaellino da Reggio between 1561 and 1579. Also the interior loggia formed by the arcade is frescoed with Raphaelesque grotesques, in the manner of the Vatican Logge. The word “grotesque” originally referred to a decorative form of Ancient Roman art. Grotesque art includes images of foliage, flowers, animals and mythical creatures, usually arranged in a symmetrical pattern.
The word grotesque comes from the same Latin root as grotto, which originated from Greek krypte "hidden place", meaning a small cave or hollow. The original meaning was restricted to an extravagant style of Ancient Roman decorative art rediscovered and then copied in Rome at the end of the 15th century. The "caves" were in fact rooms and corridors of the Domus Aurea, the unfinished palace complex started by Nero after the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64, which had become overgrown and buried, until they were broken into again, mostly from above. Towards the end of the XVth century the halls of Nero's Domus Aurea were discovered by chance. Their decoration was the first opportunity Renaissance men had to see a large sample of ancient Roman paintings. Immediately artists started to copy them and because at the time Domus Aurea had the appearance of a series of underground caves these paintings were called grottesche. With the exception of the three main halls where large frescoes cover the walls, grotesques are the prevailing decoration of the palace.
Spreading from Italian to the other European languages, the term grotesque was long used largely interchangeably with arabesque and moresque for types of decorative patterns using curving foliage elements.
Grotesques frescoes and one of four large frescoes in the casino at Villa Lante which depicts contemporary Italian villas
The gardens of the villa are as impressive as the building itself, a significant example of the Italian Renaissance garden period. The villa's fortress theme is carried through by a surrounding moat and three drawbridges. Two facades of the pentagonal arrangement face the two gardens cut into the hill; each garden is accessed across the moat by a drawbridge from the apartments on the piano nobile and each is a parterre garden of box topiary with fountains. A grotto-like theatre was once here. A walk through the chestnut woods beyond, leads to the giardino segreto, or secret garden, with its well known casino.
The gardens of Palazzo Farnese were designed after those of Villa d'Este at Tivoli. In the latter they are in full view from the palace which is located at their top. At Caprarola instead Cardinal Farnese chose to hide the main section of the gardens inside a wood of chestnut trees, very similar to those which covered the environs of Caprarola. The cardinal's guests were expected to "discover" these gardens while walking in the wood.
The surprise effect desired by Cardinal Farnese today is in part diminished by the 1950s replacement of chestnut trees with larches and by the opening of a wide path across them. The fountain on the steps leading to a small casino resembles Fontana degli Appennini at Villa Lante di Bagnaia which was designed by il Vignola a few years after the construction of Caprarola. Vignola designed other gardens for Cardinal Farnese at Orti Farnesiani in Rome.
One of the more remarkable water elements is the Catena d'acqua, or water chain, a linear channel in the form of an elongated crayfish. The name Gambara is similar to the Italian word for crayfish and became the families emblem.
Giardini di Sopra (Upper Gardens), the fountain on the steps leading to a small casino
Vinola designed a similar fountin in Villa Lante, la Fontana della Catena
The Casino, a small habitable summerhouse with two loggie for al fresco dining. It was built probably on designs by Giacomo del Duca, with later alterations were made to the area around the casino by the architect Girolamo Rainaldi. The casino is approached by stairs contained between heavily rusticated grotto walls, with a central catena d'acqua, a cascaded rill or 'water-staircase', which the water flows down to a stone basin. At the top of the steps and set in an oval space are large statues of two reclining river gods to either side of a large central vase fountain. Stairs built into the oval walls lead up to the parterred terrace in front of the south facade of the casino. This part of the terrace is lined by stone herms with cypress trees. To the north of the casino is a private garden which steps up slightly and accommodates roses.
Alessandro Farnese died in 1589 bequeathing his estates to the Farnese dukes of Parma. The Cardinal's fabulous collection was transferred eventually to Charles III of Spain in Naples. In the 19th century the villa became for a while the residence of the heir to the throne of the newly united Italy.
Elements of the villa's Renaissance gardens have influenced many estate gardens of the 19th and 20th century by landscape designers, such as Beatrix Farrand, A.E. Hanson, and Florence Yoch. 1920s gardens with a catena d'acqua include the Harold Lloyd Estate in Beverly Hills and 'Las Tejas' in Montecito, California, with the latter also having a casino in direct homage to the original at Villa Farnese. Today the casino and its gardens are one of the homes of the President of the Italian Republic. The empty main villa, owned by the State, is open to the public. The numerous rooms, salons and halls with their marbles and frescoes, and the architecture of the great palazzo-like villa are still as impressive and daunting as they were first intended to be.
BBC | Italian Gardens Villa Farnese HD | Stephen D. Milton
Italian Gardens Villa Farnese HD | Stephen D. Milton
The Italian architect Giacomo da Vignola (1507-1573) | The real name of Giacomo da Vignola was Giacomo Barozzi. He was born on Oct. 1, 1507, in Vignola near Modena en was trained in Bologna, the nearest important artistic center, as a painter and perspectivist. The three architects who spread the Italian Renaissance style throughout Western Europe are Vignola, Serlio and Palladio.
With Andrea Palladio and Giulio Romano, vignola dominated Italian Mannerist architectural design and stylistically anticipated the Baroque.
His great masterpieces are the Villa Farnese at Caprarola and the Jesuits' Church of the Gesù and Villa Giulia in Rome.
The Villa Giulia derives from the ancient villa suburbana described by Pliny the Younger.
From 1564 Vignola carried on Michelangelo's work at St Peter's Basilica, and constructed the two subordinate domes according to Michelangelo's plans. Giacomo Barozzi died in Rome in 1573. In 1973 his remains were reburied in the Pantheon, Rome.
Michel de Montaigne, Travel Journal (1580–1581). Transl. Donald M. Frame. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1983. Villa Farnese, Caprarola | From here, following the straight road, we came upon Caprarola, a palace of Cardinal Farnese, which is very greatly renowned in Italy. I have seen none in Italy that may be compared with it. It has a great moat around it, cut out of the tufa. The building is above, in the manner of a terrace; you do not see the tiles. The form is pentagonal, but to the eye it appears distinctly square. Inside, however, it is perfectly round, with wide corridors going around it, all vaulted and painted on all sides. The rooms are all square; the building, very large; very beautiful public rooms. One of these is wonderful: on its vaulted ceiling (for the building is vaulted throughout) you see the celestial sphere, with all the constellations; around it on the walls, the terrestrial globe, the regions and the whole world, everything painted very rightly directly on the wall itself.
In various other places you see depicted the nobles actions of Pope Paul III and of the house of Farnese. The persons are portrayed so true to life that where you see portrayed our Constable, or the Queen Mother, or her sons Charles, Henry, and the duke of Alencon, and the queen of Navarre, they are immediately recognized by those who have seen them; likewise King Francis, Henry II, Pietro Strozzi and others. In one and the same room, you see the effigy of King Henry II at one end and in the place of honor, under which the inscription says "Preserver of the House of Farnese," and at the other end King Philip, whose inscription says "For the many benefits received from him."
Outside there are also many noteworthy and beautiful things, among others a grotto, which, spraying water artfully into a little lake, gives the appearance to the eye and the ear of the most natural rainfall. The location is barren and alpine. And the cardinal has to draw the water for his fountain all the way from Viterbo, eight miles away. (pp. 162–63)
A set of large images of grottesca from the Palazzo Farnese | www.flickr.com  Coffin David, The Villa in the Life of Renaissance Rome, Princeton University Press, 1979: 281-5  Coffin, 1979: 281  Coffin, 1979: 285  Partridge, Loren W. "Vignola and the Villa Farnese at Caprarola", Part I The Art Bulletin 52.1 (March 1970:81-87), Part II  Partridge Loren W., "The Farnese Circular Courtyard at Caprarola: God, Geopolitics, Genealogy, and Gender", The Art Bulletin 83.2 (June 2001:259-293)  Partridge, Loren W. "The Sala d'Ercole in the Villa Farnese at Caprarola, Part I" The Art Bulletin 53.4 (December 1971:467-486), "Part II" The Art Bulletin 54.1 (March 1972:50-62).  Baumgart, 1935 noted by Kish 1953:51; Coffin, 1979: 296-7.  Robertson, Clare. "Annibal Caro as Iconographer: Sources and Method Annibal Caro as Iconographer: Sources and Method" Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 45 (1982:160-181); see also Baumgart, Fritz. "La Caprarola di Ameto Orti", Studi Romanzi, 25 (1935:80); in 240 Latin verses, La Caprarola of Ameto Orti (c 1585-89) describes the beauties of the Farnese castello.  Partridge, Loren W. "Divinity and Dynasty at Caprarola: Perfect History in the Room of Farnese Deeds", The Art Bulletin 60.3 (September 1978:494-530).  Kish,G. " 'The Mural Atlas' of Caprarola" Imago Mundi 10 (1953:51-56); the date 1574 is worked into the border of the map of Europe (p. 53); Kish identifies the sources in contemporary printed maps; the ideology of status, service, and personal merit behind the presentation of maps was interpreted by Partridge, Loren W. "The Room of Maps at Caprarola, 1573-75" The Art Bulletin, 77.3 (September 1995:413-444); the frescoes are revisited by Quinlan-McGrath, Mary. "Caprarola's Sala della Cosmografi", Renaissance Quarterly 50.4 (Winter 1997:1045-1100).  Coffin, 1979: 302 although later alterations were made to the area around the casino by the architect Girolamo Rainaldi.  Streatfield, David. "California Gardens: Creating a New Eden." Abbevile Press. New York, London, Paris. 1994. ISBN 1-55859-453-1. pp. 127. 107-11.  Pictures of Villa Lante, the Gardens, and frescoes in the garden casino, by Robert Baldwin | www.socialhistoryofart.com  Raffaellino da Reggio (1550–1578) was an Italian painter from Emilia, active in a Mannerist style mainly in Rome.
Also variously named Raffaellino Motta or Rafaellino da Reggio or a variety of combinations, he was born at Codemondo near Reggio Emilia. Initially trained under the painter Lelio Orsi. In 1575, he worked with Giovanni de' Vecchi at the Villa Farnese in Caprarola, painting in the Sala del Mappamondo and the Camera degli Angeli. He also painted a fresco of Christ before Caiaphas for the Oratory of Gonfalone. He also painted a Martyrydom of the four crowned saints for the Capella di San Silvestro in the church of Santi Quattro Coronati in Rome, and worked at the Vatican under Lorenzo Sabatini. During his short lifespan, he painted a few canvases, including a Tobias and the Angel (Galleria Borghese) and Diana and Acteon.
He died in Rome in 1578.  Gardens of Palazzo Farnese di Caprarola | www.romeartlover.it
Murray, Peter J. (1963). The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance. London: Batsford. pp. 240ff.
Freedberg, Sydney J. (1993). Pelican History of Art. ed. Painting in Italy, 1500–1600. Penguin Books Ltd. pp. p651–54.
Andrea Alessi, "Raffaellino" da Reggio e la direzione dei lavori pittorici nella Palazzina Gambara a Bagnaia, in "Bollettino d'Arte", 128, 2004, pp. 34–76.
The ultimate Italy Villa Rental. Podere Santa Pia, a formal cloister in the Tuscan Maremma with a view made in heaven is the perfect holiday resort for relaxing and enjoying the splendor of the Maremma hills of southern Tuscany.
Podere Santa Pia, view from the garden
on the valley below
Podere Santa Pia
View of Villa Certano and the hanging garden
Il parco dei Mostri di Bomarzo
Villa I Tatti
Villa Arceno gardens
Villa Lante, Bagnaia
Fontana del quadrato o dei mori in Villa Lante (Bagnaia)
As a settlement Viterbo dates back to Etruscan times. Between around 1100 and 1300, it was one of the most important cities in Europe. By the 13th Century it had 50 castles under its control. It was the place where Popes took refuge when driven out of Rome and for several decades was the seat of the Papacy. It was the scene of battles between potential invaders of Rome and papal armies.
The cathedral San Lorenzodates back to the 12th Century but the façade is 16th Century and the tower 14th. There is a tomb for Pope John XXI. Pope Alexander IV was also buried there but his tomb was unaccountably destroyed during 16th Century renovations. According to legend the cathedral was built on the site of an Etruscan temple to Hercules
The Palazzo dei Papi was formerly the bishop’s residence but was enlarged for the popes. It was the papal seat between 1257 and 1281 and hosted six popes. It was the site of the first Papal Conclave when the local people got so fed up with the cardinals taking too long to elect a pope that they locked them all in until they came to a decision. The practice continues to this day in the Sistine Chapel at the Vatican.
The Church of San Francesco was built in the 13th century in Romanesque-Gothic style, and was completely destroyed by bombs in 1944. It was reconstructed in 1953. There is the superb mausoleum of Pope Hadrian V, who died in Viterbo in 1276 and the mausoleum of Pope Clement IV, who died in Viterbo in 1268. There are also remains of the tomb of the so-called “Pope-of-one-day”, Cardinal Vicedomino Vicedomini, who would have become Gregory XI, if he had not died the night after his election.
Just outside the city center of Viterbo there are the famous Thermal Baths of the Popes and the spring of "Bullicame", mentioned in canto XIV in Dante's Inferno, which feeds the big swimming pool of the "Terme dei Papi" and various other "pools". Other springs in the nearby, all belonging to the basin of the "Bullicame" flow other "pools" scattered in the surrounding countryside.
In the immediate vicinity of Viterbo there is the Etruscan necropolis of Castel d'Asso and only nine kilometers far the ruins of the "civitas splendidissima" of Ferento with its Roman theatre.
Ferento was destroyed by the rival Viterbese in the 1100s. Not much remains except the well preserved theater and the foundations of some Roman baths. This hilltop, which once held an Etruscan and then wealthy Roman city, was reduced to rubble.
Performances and concerts are still held in the amphitheatre.
Ferento can be reached following Viterbo-Bagnoregio provincial road, turning at km 7.
Viterbo, Cathedral of San Lorenzo
Villa Lante, at Bagnaia 3 km east can be reached by local bus. This garden is known as one of the very finest in Italy, Formed along a row of cascades between parterre gardens. It is from the 16th century in the mannerist style created by the famous architect Vignola. Tuesday to Sunday varying opening hours.
Bagnaia is a small town on the slopes of Monte Cimino a few miles from Viterbo, known in medieval times for its thermal water (bagno, bath). Villa Lante at Bagnaia is a Mannerist garden of surprise near Viterbo, central Italy, attributed to Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola. Owned by the Cardinal Gambara in the late 16th century the garden was so stunning it had a dramatic effect on visitors. The Villa Lante consists of two nearly identical houses, Gambara and Montalto plus gardens that impress with water displays of fountains, cascades and sculptures.
Villa Lante at Bagnaia, Lower Garden with the casino and the Fountain of the Moors
Fontana del quadrato o Fontana dei Mori in Villa Lante, Bagnaia
Fontana del quadrato o dei mori in Villa Lante (Bagnaia)
Stanza della Caccia, Casino Gambara in Villa Lante, Bagnaia
The Villa Farnese or Villa Caprarola is a member of the Grandi Giardini Italiani, an association of major gardens in Italy. Its members include some of the most important gardens in Italy.
List of member gardens | Fondazione Pompeo Mariani (Imperia), Giardini Botanici di Stigliano (Roma), Giardini Botanici di Villa Taranto (Verbania), Giardini Botanici Hanbury (Ventimiglia), Giardini della Landriana (Roma), Giardini La Mortella (Napoli), Giardino Barbarigo Pizzoni Ardemani (Padova), Giardino Bardini (Firenze), Giardino dell'Hotel Cipriani (Venezia), Giardino di Boboli (Firenze), Giardino di Ninfa (Latina), Giardino di Palazzo del Principe, Giardino di Villa Gamberaia (Firenze), Giardino Ducale di Parma, Giardino Esotico Pallanca (Imperia), Giardino Giusti (Verona), Giardino Storico Garzoni (Pistoia), Gardens of Trauttmansdorff Castle (Merano), Giardino del Biviere (Siracusa), Serraglio di Villa Fracazan Piovene (Vicenza), Vittoriale degli Italiani (Brescia), Cervara, Abbazia di San Girolamo al Monte di Portofino (Genova), Venaria Reale, Museo Giardino della Rosa Antica (Modena), Museo Nazionale di Villa Nazionale Pisani (Venezia), Oasi di Porto (Roma), Orto Botanico dell'Università di Catania, Palazzo Fantini (Forlì), Palazzo Parisio (Malta), Palazzo Patrizi (Roma), Parco Botanico di San Liberato (Roma), Parco del Castello di Miramare (Trieste), Parco della Villa Pallavicino (Verbania), Parco della Villa Reale di Marlia (Lucca), Parco di Palazzo Coronini Cronberg (Gorizia), Parco di Palazzo Malingri di Bagnolo (Cuneo), Parco di Pinocchio (Pistoia), Parco Giardino Sigurtà (Verona), Parco Idrotermale del Negombo (Napoli), Parco Paternò del Toscano (Catania), Parco Storico Seghetti Panichi (Ascoli Piceno), Varramista Gardens (Pisa), Villa Arvedi (Verona), Villa Borromeo Visconti Litta (Milano), Villa Carlotta (Como), Villa del Balbianello (Como), Villa della Porta Bozzolo (Varese), Villa d'Este (Como), Villa d'Este (Tivoli), Villa di Geggiano (Siena), Villa Durazzo (S. Margherita Ligure, GE), Villa Farnese di Caprarola (Viterbo), Villa Grabau (Lucca), Villa La Babina (Imola), Villa La Pescigola (Massa), Villa Lante (Viterbo), Villa Melzi d'Eril (Como), Villa Montericco Pasolini (Imola), Villa Novare Bertani (Verona), Villa Oliva-Buonvisi (Lucca), Villa Peyron al Bosco di Fontelucente (Firenze), Villa Pisani Bolognesi Scalabrin (Padova), Villa Poggio Torselli (Firenze), Villa San Michele (Napoli), Villa Serra (Genova), Villa Trento Da Schio (Vicenza), Villa Trissino Marzotto (Vicenza), Villa Vignamaggio (Firenze). Grandi Giardini Italiani (Italian) | www.grandigiardini.it